All About An Automatic Voltage Regulator – Its Parts And Working Conditions

What is an automatic voltage regulator?

An automatic voltage regulator is operated to regulate the voltage. It handles the fluctuating voltage and changes them into a constant one. The fluctuation in the voltage mainly emerges due to the variation in load on the supply system. It damages the equipment of the power system. The variation can be controlled by installing the voltage control equipment at several places like near the transformers, generator, feeders, etc. The voltage regulator is provided at more than one point in the power system for maintaining the voltage variations.

The voltage can be controlled by using over-compound generators in the DC supply system in the case of feeders of equal length, but in the case of feeders of different lengths the voltage at the end of each feeder is kept consistent using a feeder booster. In an AC system, the voltage can be controlled by using different methods like booster transformers, induction regulators, shunt condensers, etc.,

Working Conditions

In an automatic voltage regulator, two conditions occurred in regulating the voltage, that is listed below:

Under Excitation:

Under excitation, is a condition of the generator whose gain is less or less reinforced so that it will supply the current to the system. This can be reviewed according to the GGM / flux of the anchor reaction. When the generator is less amplified, it must supply an overdue current to the system because the overdue current will create an anchor flux that will strengthen the rotor flux.

Over Excitation:

In overexcitation conditions, a generator whose gain is too large or too amplified will supply a lagging current to the system. When the generator is overly amplified, it must supply a lagging current to the system because it will produce an anchor flux that will counteract the rotor flux to decrease reinforcement that is too large.

Parts of Automatic Voltage Regulator
Sensing circuit

The three-phase generator voltage is supplied to the sensing circuit passing PT and 90R first, and the three-phase output voltage of 90R is downcast and transmitted by the diode circuit, and levelled by capacitor circuit and resistor and this voltage can be adjusted with Variable Resistant. The advantage of the sensing circuit is to have an immediate response to the generator output voltage.

Comparative amplifier

In an automatic voltage regulator, the comparative amplifier circuit is used to compare sensing circuits and set voltage. The amount of sensing voltage with set voltage does not have an identical value so the difference in the voltage range stays. The voltage difference is named an error voltage, which can be removed by installing VR or variable resistance on the set voltage and sensing voltage.

Automatic manual changeover and mixer circuit

This circuit is arranged in an auto-manual connection switch and a circuit to regulate the voltage amplifying the generator. The automatic change-over and mixer circuit in the manual operation of the generator field increase voltage regulation, and when the automatic manual change-over and mixer circuits operate manually, the AVR (automatic voltage regulator) cannot operate.

Limited circuit

A limited circuit is for specifying the limitation of more and less reinforcement or excitation for putting output voltage on the excitatory system.

Phase synchronizing circuit

The thyristor unit is used to maintain the output voltage of the thyristor by using a control signal given to the thyristor gate by changing the magnitude of the signal angle. The synchronization phase circuit serves to adjust the angle of the thyristor gate which corresponds to the output voltage of the synchronization limit and also the control signal given to the thyristor below has a synchronization image.

Thyristor firing circuit

This circuit is a complement to the thyristor to deliver control signals at the thyristor gate.

Dumping circuit

The dumping circuit will offer the sensor the extent of the voltage amplification of the AC excite.

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