A Battery monitoring system contains cutoff FETs, a fuel gauge monitor, a cell voltage monitor, a cell voltage balance, a real-time clock (RTC), temperature monitors, and a state machine. Battery management integrated circuits are functional in a range of forms and sizes. The usable components are organized in several ways, ranging from a simple analogue front-end with balancing and monitoring that mandates a microcontroller (MCU) to a self-contained, fully integrated system. Here we are going to discuss Battery monitoring system and the block’s function and technology, as well as its advantages and disadvantages.
1. Cutoff FETs and FET Driver
To connect and isolate the battery pack from the load and charger, a FET driver functional block is responsible for it. The behaviour of the FET driver is resolved by battery cell voltage readings, current measurements, and real-time detecting circuitry.
2. Fuel Gauge / Current Measurements
The charge passing into and departing the battery pack is tracked by the fuel gauge functional block. The product of current and time in charge. When it comes to assembling a gasoline gauge, there are many options. One method for detecting current is to use a current-sensing amplifier and an MCU with an integrated low-resolution ADC.
The current sense amplifier improves the signal in high common-mode conditions, allowing for greater resolution measurements, where the dynamic range is sacrificed in this design method. Other options are using a high-resolution ADC or purchasing a pricey fuel gauge IC. The optimum sort of gasoline gauge design is determined by comprehending the behaviour of the load in terms of current consumption vs time.
3. Cell Voltage and Maximising Battery Lifetime
It is necessary to monitor each cell’s voltage to determine the overall health of a battery pack. To guarantee optimal functioning and battery life, all cells contain an operating voltage window within which charging, and discharging should take place. The voltage range is determined by the chemical. Operating the battery outside of the voltage range drastically reduces the cell’s lifespan and may render it unusable. A battery pack is created with cells linked in series and parallel.
4. Improving the ON Time of a Battery Pack Per Charge
There are two techniques to increase the ON time per charge of a battery pack. The first is to connect a bypass FET to a current-limiting resistor across the weakest cell to reduce the amount of charge received during the charging cycle. This technique diverts current away from the cell with the highest current, slowing its charge and letting the other cells in the battery pack catch up. The goal is to boost the battery pack’s charge capacity by ensuring that all of the cells reach full charge at the same time.
05. Temperature Monitoring
Temperature sensors monitor each cell for energy storage system (ESS) applications or a bunch of cells for smaller and more portable applications. Thermistors with an inbuilt ADC voltage reference are widely utilized to monitor the temperature of each circuit. The internal voltage reference is utilized to reduce temperature reading errors due to temperature fluctuations in the surroundings.
However, Battery monitoring system may be constructed employing several different functional blocks and design methods. The proper architecture, functional blocks, and associated ICs to construct your battery management system and charging scheme to improve battery life will be defined by careful evaluation of battery needs and battery life goals.
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